Nacirema SocietySMost cultures have different ways of doing things and perception of the world, and their interactions with society always leave a mark. Different cultures have different driving forces that determine how operations will be conducted in those cultures. The different cultures make people to behave differently in similar situations, which are influenced by the different beliefs, practices, and values in the cultures. This paper will discuss the Nacirema society through cultural relativism lenses, whose beliefs and practices are driven by magic. The Nacirema society believes that magic can influence people’s behaviors and morals.The Nacirema society is a community located in the Northern part of America and whose culture has been poorly understood by many people. The rich habitat in which the Nacirema society lives in has influenced their highly extended market economy. Most people spend their time in economic quest; a large portion of their time and fruits from the laborers are used to carry out the rituals (Burde M 2014). These rituals primary aim is the human body; health and appearances, and the main concern is on the ethos of people, the uniqueness of the philosophy and ceremonial aspects associated with the rituals. The Nacirema society believes that the human body is ugly and is prone to diseases and weaknesses, and the only to avert these traits is through performing ceremonies and rituals. Each household has one or more shrines for carrying out the rituals and ceremonies, while the powerful people in society have many shrines. The shrine is wealthier than the houses sine its wall and built by stones or pottery plaque for the low-income families.The ceremonies conducted in the shrines are sacred and private, and the rights are only told to the children during their introduction to these secrets. The shrine has a chest box which contains the charms, and the natives believe that without the magical portions and charms they would not live. There are practitioners who associate with the charms and magical portions, and medicine men are the most powerful practitioner (Burde M 2014). The medicine men provide ingredients for the curative medicine for the clients, although they do not give curative portions, but they direct the herbalists on the ingredients to give the patient. The remaining parts of the curative portions are placed in the household shrines. The medicine men also conduct a latipso ceremony on sick patients at the temple. The latipso ceremonies are usually very cruel to the patients, and only a small portion of them survive. The sick small children are never taken to the latipso ceremonies, as it is believed that it is where they go to die .Accommodation to the ceremony depends on how rich the gift the medicine man gets regardless of the emergency or how sick the patient is. After the one has survived the ceremony, one is only allowed to leave after giving out another gift.Below the medicine men are the holy-mouth-men that have a fascinating way of dealing with the mouth. The Nacirema believe that were it not for the rituals performed in their mouths, all their teeth would fall, jaws shrink, gums bleed, friends would leave them, and lovers deny them. The rituals performed by the holy-mouth-men are essential for socialization since they control the social relationships that the Nacirema people have (Burde M 2014). The Nacirema society believes that having a robust relationship is determined by moral and oral traits, and that why children undergo the ablution ritual to enhance their moral aspects. The socialization in this society is enhanced by the mouth-rite that is performed on everyone daily. People are supposed to visit a holy-mouth-man once or twice a year to remove the mouth’s evil using paraphernalia set that consists of probes, augers, prods, and awls. The concussion is kept on the holes of decaying teeth, and the objective is to prevent tooth decay and attract more friends, thus promoting socialization. The Nacirema people believe so much in the holy-mouth-man, and although their teeth continue to decay, they still go back there every year.Using the dramaturgical model, the lives of Nacirema are like actors on a stage since they have pre-determined actions in each stage of life. They are supposed to keep their bodies sacred and not to expose it to natural tasks daily. Normal tasks such as bathing and excretion are supposed to be conducted in the household shrines to ensure privacy (Burde M 2014). They are also supposed to conduct the rite of the holy-mouth-man daily that involves torture and discomfort, but people are always eager to conduct the ritual as they believe it helps them to have oral morals and protect their gums, teeth, and jaws. When one is sick, they are supposed to visit a medicine man who directs them on the herbalist ingredients. When they are possessed by evil spirits, they visit the witch doctors that help the patients overcome their fears and troubles. The lives of the Nacirema people are well outlined, and each aspect of life is associated to a magical rite that they believe they must undergo to overcome the issue they are facing.The Nacirema are magic-driven people, and although the magic exposes them to a lot of cruelty and irrelevances, they still stick to the rites. Viewing magic-driven rituals from a modern civilization, such societies are viewed as exotic and the magical aspect is irrelevant.ReferencesBurde, M. (2014). Social‐Science Fiction: The Genesis and Legacy of Horace Miner’s “Body Ritual among the Nacirema”. American Anthropologist, 116(3), 549-561.

Development of Photography in the 19th Century and its Impact on the Society


The first world’s photograph was produced by Nicéphore Niépce between 1765-1833, using pewter plates in a camera obscura and had an eight hours exposure. The earliest photographs were not captured on papers but on pieces of glasses and metal and captured extraordinary details, giving greater insight into life. Daguerreotypes were the first practical photographs invented in 1839 by Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre. This form of photographs gave more details more than the current images (Miller Andrew). their mirror-like surface identifies the daguerreotypes, and to prevent them from tarnishing, they were carefully placed on a silver-plated sheet to avoid obscuring the image overtime.
Ambrotypes were the second types of photographs made by applying the glass plates with a coat of an iodized collodion and silver nitrate bath. The images was underexposed to produce a fainter negative image, which were made using dark or black backing made from paper, glass, or fabrics. These images were popular in the 1850s through the 1880s since they were cheap to produce (Miller Andrew).

Tintypes used the same wet collodion process ambrotypes did, but the process applied thin sheets of iron coated in dark brown or black paint instead of glass. The process was developed in 1856, and tintypes were thin, cheap, and more durable than ambrotypes or daguerrotypes. Lastly was the paper photography that replaced the metal and glass methods. The paper photographs were largely used because they were cheaper to produce and easier to use, and increased detail was captured in a shorter amount of time.
The invention had a great impact on the society since it had an influence on the changing visual culture of the society, thus making art accessible to the general public (Barnbaum Bruce). It made them to change their notion, perception, and knowledge of art, and they appreciated the artistic beauty. Therefore, photography made art more accessible, portable, and cheaper.

Synthesis Paper _Texas South University

Synthesis Paper
20 Fall-Learning and Behavior-

Section01 has been one of the most engaging courses where the students do a lot of research and reading. From the first chapter, the students were required to have familiarize themselves with the coursework even before the first lecture. In this course, the students are supposed to read the notes provides and to affirm their knowledge through the youtube videos. The chapters of this course seem easier to understand but require a lot of critical thinking to get a better understanding of the topics. The chapters include issues that affect people’s behaviors and learning process, and to have a better understanding of the chapter; various theories explain them. The topics have addressed issues such as how to avoid punishment, stimulus control, behavior reinforcement, rules governing behavior, self-control, and mother aspects that can help people individuals to improve their learning and behaviors.
This course has been a social one since it deals with things that people do daily. People are always learning and behaving; therefore, it has become easier to relate to this course and helped the students to improve on their weaknesses. The students have been used as the specimen for this topic as the questions asked relate to their behavior and rate of learning. The question asked includes; what behavior do you want to change, what is the goal of increasing or decreasing the behavior, what is your rate of learning. Thus as the students learn about other aspects in this course, they can also relate to themselves and understand it better.
The most common method of learning has been online. It has been enabled by the availability of internet in the university. Texas Southern University provides free internet to the student, and it does not require a password to use. Thus it makes it possible for the professors and the students to engage online. The professor has been giving the students the outline of each chapter and the students have to read on them and make notes. With the availability of internet at the university, it is easier for the students taking this course to find the notes online, and in case they do not understand they can contact the professor for more elaboration.
The availability of the internet has made it possible for the students to watch the youtube videos provided together with the notes. Watching the videos enable the students to understand the notes better. Everybody likes watching, and that’s why this course is somehow interesting since in almost all chapters there are one or more videos to be watched. The exams are also provided online, and to make the students ready for them, the professor gives prior notice on when the exam will be done and the chapters that will be covered. The course content provides what the students need to learn from each chapter, and since the students search for the notes, it becomes easier for them to revise. In some chapters, there are quizzes given and these help the students determine whether they have understood the chapter or not and also act as a form of revision. Thus when the main exam comes, the students will have partly revised. This course had proven that online teaching can also deliver the same results as classroom teaching. However, the students will have to work a little harder since they have the task of finding their notes and read them, unlike before when they were provided for them by the professors.

NACIREMA SOCIETY_

Most cultures have different ways of doing things and perception of the world, and their interactions with society always leave a mark. Different cultures have different driving forces that determine how operations will be conducted in those cultures. The different cultures make people to behave differently in similar situations, which are influenced by the different beliefs, practices, and values in the cultures. This paper will discuss the Nacirema society through cultural relativism lenses, whose beliefs and practices are driven by magic. The Nacirema society believes that magic can influence people’s behaviors and morals.
The Nacirema society is a community located in the Northern part of America and whose culture has been poorly understood by many people. The rich habitat in which the Nacirema society lives in has influenced their highly extended market economy. Most people spend their time in economic quest; a large portion of their time and fruits from the laborers are used to carry out the rituals (Burde M 2014). These rituals primary aim is the human body; health and appearances, and the main concern is on the ethos of people, the uniqueness of the philosophy and ceremonial aspects associated with the rituals. The Nacirema society believes that the human body is ugly and is prone to diseases and weaknesses, and the only to avert these traits is through performing ceremonies and rituals. Each household has one or more shrines for carrying out the rituals and ceremonies, while the powerful people in society have many shrines. The shrine is wealthier than the houses sine its wall and built by stones or pottery plaque for the low-income families.
The ceremonies conducted in the shrines are sacred and private, and the rights are only told to the children during their introduction to these secrets. The shrine has a chest box which contains the charms, and the natives believe that without the magical portions and charms they would not live. There are practitioners who associate with the charms and magical portions, and medicine men are the most powerful practitioner (Burde M 2014). The medicine men provide ingredients for the curative medicine for the clients, although they do not give curative portions, but they direct the herbalists on the ingredients to give the patient. The remaining parts of the curative portions are placed in the household shrines. The medicine men also conduct a latipso ceremony on sick patients at the temple. The latipso ceremonies are usually very cruel to the patients, and only a small portion of them survive. The sick small children are never taken to the latipso ceremonies, as it is believed that it is where they go to die .Accommodation to the ceremony depends on how rich the gift the medicine man gets regardless of the emergency or how sick the patient is. After the one has survived the ceremony, one is only allowed to leave after giving out another gift.
Below the medicine men are the holy-mouth-men that have a fascinating way of dealing with the mouth. The Nacirema believe that were it not for the rituals performed in their mouths, all their teeth would fall, jaws shrink, gums bleed, friends would leave them, and lovers deny them. The rituals performed by the holy-mouth-men are essential for socialization since they control the social relationships that the Nacirema people have (Burde M 2014). The Nacirema society believes that having a robust relationship is determined by moral and oral traits, and that why children undergo the ablution ritual to enhance their moral aspects. The socialization in this society is enhanced by the mouth-rite that is performed on everyone daily. People are supposed to visit a holy-mouth-man once or twice a year to remove the mouth’s evil using paraphernalia set that consists of probes, augers, prods, and awls. The concussion is kept on the holes of decaying teeth, and the objective is to prevent tooth decay and attract more friends, thus promoting socialization. The Nacirema people believe so much in the holy-mouth-man, and although their teeth continue to decay, they still go back there every year.
Using the dramaturgical model, the lives of Nacirema are like actors on a stage since they have pre-determined actions in each stage of life. They are supposed to keep their bodies sacred and not to expose it to natural tasks daily. Normal tasks such as bathing and excretion are supposed to be conducted in the household shrines to ensure privacy (Burde M 2014). They are also supposed to conduct the rite of the holy-mouth-man daily that involves torture and discomfort, but people are always eager to conduct the ritual as they believe it helps them to have oral morals and protect their gums, teeth, and jaws. When one is sick, they are supposed to visit a medicine man who directs them on the herbalist ingredients. When they are possessed by evil spirits, they visit the witch doctors that help the patients overcome their fears and troubles. The lives of the Nacirema people are well outlined, and each aspect of life is associated to a magical rite that they believe they must undergo to overcome the issue they are facing.
The Nacirema are magic-driven people, and although the magic exposes them to a lot of cruelty and irrelevances, they still stick to the rites. Viewing magic-driven rituals from a modern civilization, such societies are viewed as exotic and the magical aspect is irrelevant.

References
Burde, M. (2014). Social‐Science Fiction: The Genesis and Legacy of Horace Miner’s “Body Ritual among the Nacirema”. American Anthropologist, 116(3), 549-561.

Book Review :African Women Writing Resistance

African Women Writing Resistance is the first anthology from various nations that address the strategies of resistance that African women use to challenge the issues they encounter in Africa. The book combines interviews, poetry, testimony, folktales, narratives, lyrics, and performance scripts African women’s challenges in Africa. The book presents issues such as Sharia law, polygamy, female genital mutilation, interethnic and intertribal conflicts, exile and emigration, domestic use, and deprivation of the environment (Bastida Patricia 256). The primary contributors to this book are; vibrant new hosts from all over the African continent and from African diaspora, Nawal El Saadawi, and Wangari Maathai. The book addresses specific issues that are unique to African women and addresses other worldwide issues.
African Women Writing Resistance is thematic-based rather than chronological or geographical-oriented. The aspects discussed in this book are the ones that any African woman who is a writer would face either in African or in the diaspora. The volume is divided into seven sections and two poems that demonstrate the origin of the collections. The book was inspired by the need to empower women and the spirit of activism and has taken part in strengthening and appealing to women. Still, there is uncertainty on the editor’s achievements and ambitions since the book is advertised at the back instead on the front pages (Bastida Patricia 258). The writing was used a resistance tool where the women wrote on critical issues affecting them. The book talks of personal responses from the contributors to oppression, which raises the different perceptions of the meaning of resistance. Using writing as an act of resistance to address oppression makes the book’s thematic focus as unpredictable. The oppressive condition extensively addressed by women literature is gender-based violence and oppression.
The book African Women Writing Resistance although it addresses the major issues of violence and oppression, is distinguished from other literature. It focuses on resistance, which is not clear in some texts that focus on oppression instead of moments or strategies of opposition. The book integrates many voices of ordinary women from different educational, cultural, and social backgrounds and has achieved exceptional personal greatness. The contributors have witness’s resistance, and their contribution in the process has left an inspiring and robust motivation to the readers (Bastida Patricia 259). The book addresses social inequality, and lack of adequate opportunities to access resources that have increased the imagination and determination of African women to improve their material state and create a clear path for their granddaughters and daughters. The contributors address their resistance by addressing how they were able to overcome their oppressors and became heroines and never stopped at that instead, they have embarked on empowering women, especially those in the twenty-first century, throughout the African continent.
African Women Writing Resistance celebrates African women’s voices and tackles different issues they have encountered and those issues they have to confront since they are women. The book has elevated women’s spirit of empowerment and activism to face oppression in solidarity. The book uses personal interviews and experiences to motivate widows and other African women on the strategies they can use to face the oppression they may encounter daily. It is the African women’s role to resist any form of oppression they may encounter and should mobilize other women to follow suit since every human being deserves to be free and do the things that make them happy.

Development of Photography in the 19th Century and its Impact on The Society

The first world’s photograph was produced by Nicéphore Niépce between 1765-1833, using pewter plates in a camera obscura and had an eight hours exposure. The earliest photographs were not captured on papers but on pieces of glasses and metal and captured extraordinary details, giving greater insight into life. Daguerreotypes were the first practical photographs invented in 1839 by Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre. This form of photographs gave more details more than the current images (Miller Andrew). their mirror-like surface identifies the daguerreotypes, and to prevent them from tarnishing, they were carefully placed on a silver-plated sheet to avoid obscuring the image overtime.
Ambrotypes were the second types of photographs made by applying the glass plates with a coat of an iodized collodion and silver nitrate bath. The images was underexposed to produce a fainter negative image, which were made using dark or black backing made from paper, glass, or fabrics. These images were popular in the 1850s through the 1880s since they were cheap to produce (Miller Andrew). Tintypes used the same wet collodion process ambrotypes did, but the process applied thin sheets of iron coated in dark brown or black paint instead of glass. The process was developed in 1856, and tintypes were thin, cheap, and more durable than ambrotypes or daguerrotypes. Lastly was the paper photography that replaced the metal and glass methods. The paper photographs were largely used because they were cheaper to produce and easier to use, and increased detail was captured in a shorter amount of time.
The invention had a great impact on the society since it had an influence on the changing visual culture of the society, thus making art accessible to the general public (Barnbaum Bruce). It made them to change their notion, perception, and knowledge of art, and they appreciated the artistic beauty. Therefore, photography made art more accessible, portable, and cheaper.

Things to Do in Texas This weekend:Article Review

The article talks about starting the year with a visit to the wild at Fossil Rim Wildlife Center would help people enjoy the last weekend in 2019 before the city opened up. At the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center there are many things to do and watch which include; on January 5, there was rhino encounter program, which host the world’s wondrous rhinoceros with an aid from the tour guide and the program takes only one hour, for visitors above seven years and above. On January 3-5, Ram Texas Circuit Finals Rodeo, where two cowgirls and two cowboys from Texas perform at the Extraco Events Center, as the spectators enjoy the seven events of bareback riding, saddle bronc riding, bull riding, steer wrestling, tie-down roping, team roping, and barrel racing. Those who visit Fossil Rim Wildlife Center also participate in the Bandera Endurance Run in January 5-6 where the top male and female participants of the 100k get an automatic entry to the western states one hundred. In January 6 the attendees engaged in Ed Ruscha: Archaeology and Romance”, which is associated with artists Ed Ruscha and it includes photography and sketches of the landmark of the artist’s books. In January 6, it was a day of making Africa; a continent of contemporary design where more than one hundred and twenty designers showcased their works. Other activities involved the magical winter lights, the nature Arps, Johnson’s city spectacular lights, the trains at the North park, and the ice land at Moody Gardens. All of these were meant to mark the start of the new year of 2019.

San Antonio Holidays :Keeping Spirits Bright__Article Review

The article begins by describing a chilly Saturday morning in December, but there are many people around three hundred on the streets of San Antonio museum. Some are sip[ing coffee and cocoa, others are sited silently checking the gift list while others are chatting until the door open and all enters for the Bazar Sábado, at the global shopping gala/grab-a-thon. The museum scouts search for unique gifts throughout the year for the Saturday Bazar from Africa, Mexico, Asia, central and South America. The market is opened until mid-afternoon, but those going to the Bazaar arrive early before sunrise to ensure they select the best. The reason why San Antonio is the best choice for the holiday season is because of the rich and infectious cultures found there. In the previous years, the rich cultures presented in these museums include; glowing luminaries, old lighted parade, twinkling trees along the River Walk, and cruising boat-carolers. The spirited shopping spree on a chilly Saturday includes; tree-lighting at Alamo plaza that begins in the mid-afternoon with holiday music by local bands, face-painting, balloon-artist “elves” and other enticements. Another activity is a holiday in the park, six flags fiesta Texas, which includes snow sliding.  Blessing of the animals, market square, where people and their faithful pets, mostly dogs and cats, cohabitate in the Market Square to receive priestly blessings for the animals present. The River Walk holiday events include; Ford Holiday River Parade & Lighting Ceremony, where the goers parade along the bridges and the banks to watch the lighted floating celebrities and music entertainment from the storied highway.

It’s Zoo Tenniel !

The article talks of the gigantic hippopotamus that breaks the surface and yawns wide. Egret’s nets at the treetops that a crocodile emerges from the watery shadows emerge wanting to feast on the egret nest together with other hungry African friends. The San Antonio zoo’s water is filled with African live exhibitions. The zookeepers feed the animals and are as friendly as they answer the visitors’ questions. Feeding the animals and attending to the visitors are just some of the zookeepers’ activities at San Antonio, which marks the centennial mark celebration this year. The zoo’s celebration has created the Zootennial Plaza to celebrate a century in the world’s wildlife services. The plaza is designed to provide a gathering for special and casual occasion, and is featured by other amenities such as restraints.
The idea of creating the zoo was inspired by a gift of land given by San Antonian and philanthropist George Washington Brackenridge. Brackenridge, an Indiana who arrived in Texas in 1853 during the civil war. He started a cotton trade business and benefited a lot during the war. After the war, he relocated to San Antonio to create a collection of elk, buffalo, deer, monkeys, two lions, and four bears, and this is the genesis of the today’s zoo in San Antonio. To ensure the progress of the zoo, the local San Antonians have educated the public about wildlife. Today the zoo hosts nine thousand animals in thirty-five acres of exhibitions, representing seven hundred and fifty species from all over the world. The animals are from Asia, south and North America, Australia, and an extensive part of African species. The African species include;   Nile crocodiles, hippos, colobus monkeys, African wild dogs, a termite mound, an aviary, lions, ostriches, zebras, and elephants.

Articles Review_How June teeth Brought Emancipation to Enslaved People n Texas

The author says that in his adolescent years in the 1960s, together with his family, they motored to 45 miles northwest on US 290 from southeast Houston’s Sunnyside neighborhood to a small community of African American farmers in Prairie View. The author’s family was also joined by other black families as what seemed to be a picnic. The author says that the annual Juneteenth celebration for the adults was only a leisure day since the tradition of saluting the African Americans who gave the African Americans living in Texas their freedom 155 years ago. The author says that despite his disinterest in the Juneteenth celebration when he was young, in his thirties, he was given the privilege to research the black history in Texas, and this raised his interest in wanting to understand the history of African Americans in Texas.
Texas was the first state to make emancipation day an official holiday. The roots of Juneteenth were planted by the proclamation, to economically frustrate the Confederate States Army and restore the Union. President Abraham Lincoln believed that freeing slaves in the rebellious states would collapse the Confederate’s cotton-based economy by taking away its labor force, and that’s what he did, and the confederates stood fast. It made all the slave owners to move their slaves to Texas, where they were less likely to be freed. In April 1865, the civil war ended after troops arrived with the main task of freeing the slaves. The proclamation from the Executive of the United States said that all the slaves had to be released. When the African Americans in Texas heard that they would be freed, there was a lot of celebration to end the 250 years of misery. In 1866, the first Juneteenth celebration was done one year after emancipation.

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